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Research Article

Roadless Wilderness Area Determines Forest Elephant Movements in the Congo Basin

  • Stephen Blake mail,

    sblakewcs@gmail.com

    Affiliations: Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America, Department of Biology and Whitney R. Harris World Ecology Center, University of Missouri - St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, ‘Vogelwarte Radolfzell’, Radolfzell, Germany

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  • Sharon L. Deem,

    Affiliations: Department of Biology and Whitney R. Harris World Ecology Center, University of Missouri - St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America, WildCare Institute, Saint Louis Zoo, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Samantha Strindberg,

    Affiliation: Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Fiona Maisels,

    Affiliation: Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Ludovic Momont,

    Affiliation: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Ménagerie du Jardin des Plantes, Laboratoire de Conservation des Espèces, UMR 5173 Muséum-CNRS, 57, Paris, France

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  • Inogwabini-Bila Isia,

    Affiliation: The Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, The University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, United Kingdom

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  • Iain Douglas-Hamilton,

    Affiliations: Save the Elephants, Langata Link Complex, Langata, Nairobi, Kenya, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • William B. Karesh,

    Affiliation: Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Michael D. Kock

    Affiliation: Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Published: October 28, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003546

About the Authors

Stephen Blake, Samantha Strindberg, Fiona Maisels, William B. Karesh, Michael D. Kock
Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America
Stephen Blake, Sharon L. Deem
Department of Biology and Whitney R. Harris World Ecology Center, University of Missouri - St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America
Stephen Blake
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, ‘Vogelwarte Radolfzell’, Radolfzell, Germany
Sharon L. Deem
WildCare Institute, Saint Louis Zoo, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America
Ludovic Momont
Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Ménagerie du Jardin des Plantes, Laboratoire de Conservation des Espèces, UMR 5173 Muséum-CNRS, 57, Paris, France
Inogwabini-Bila Isia
The Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, The University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, United Kingdom
Iain Douglas-Hamilton
Save the Elephants, Langata Link Complex, Langata, Nairobi, Kenya
Iain Douglas-Hamilton
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: sblakewcs@gmail.com

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SB LM. Performed the experiments: SB SLD FGM LM IBI WBK MDK. Analyzed the data: SB SS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: IDH. Wrote the paper: SB. Provided veterinary services during immobilisation of elephants: SLD WBK MDK. Provided strong technical assistance throughout the study: IDH.