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Research Article

Cancer Genes Hypermethylated in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

  • Vincenzo Calvanese,

    Affiliation: Cancer Epigenetics Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain

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  • Angelica Horrillo,

    Affiliation: Andalusian Center for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine (CABIMER), Seville, Spain

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  • Abdelkrim Hmadcha,

    Affiliation: Andalusian Center for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine (CABIMER), Seville, Spain

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  • Beatriz Suarez-Álvarez,

    Affiliation: Unidad de Histocompatibilidad, HUCA, Oviedo, Spain

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  • Agustín F. Fernandez,

    Affiliations: Cancer Epigenetics Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain, Cancer Epigenetics and Biology Program (PEBC), Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Barcelona, Spain

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  • Ester Lara,

    Affiliation: Cancer Epigenetics Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain

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  • Sara Casado,

    Affiliation: Cancer Epigenetics Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain

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  • Pablo Menendez,

    Affiliation: Andalusian Stem Cell Bank (BACM)/University of Granada, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Parque Tecnológico de la Salud, Granada, Spain

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  • Clara Bueno,

    Affiliation: Andalusian Stem Cell Bank (BACM)/University of Granada, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Parque Tecnológico de la Salud, Granada, Spain

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  • Javier Garcia-Castro,

    Affiliation: Andalusian Stem Cell Bank (BACM)/University of Granada, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Parque Tecnológico de la Salud, Granada, Spain

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  • Ruth Rubio,

    Affiliation: Andalusian Stem Cell Bank (BACM)/University of Granada, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Parque Tecnológico de la Salud, Granada, Spain

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  • Pablo Lapunzina,

    Affiliation: S. de Genética Médica y Molecular, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid y CIBERER, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras, Madrid, Spain

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  • Miguel Alaminos,

    Affiliation: Department of Histology, University of Granada, Granada, Spain

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  • Lodovica Borghese,

    Affiliation: Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology, LIFE & BRAIN Center, University of Bonn and Hertie Foundation, Bonn, Germany

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  • Stefanie Terstegge,

    Affiliation: Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology, LIFE & BRAIN Center, University of Bonn and Hertie Foundation, Bonn, Germany

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  • Neil J. Harrison,

    Affiliation: Centre for Stem Cell Biology and the Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

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  • Harry D. Moore,

    Affiliation: Centre for Stem Cell Biology and the Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

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  • Oliver Brüstle,

    Affiliation: Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology, LIFE & BRAIN Center, University of Bonn and Hertie Foundation, Bonn, Germany

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  • Carlos Lopez-Larrea,

    Affiliation: Unidad de Histocompatibilidad, HUCA, Oviedo, Spain

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  • Peter W. Andrews,

    Affiliation: Centre for Stem Cell Biology and the Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

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  • Bernat Soria,

    Affiliation: Unidad de Histocompatibilidad, HUCA, Oviedo, Spain

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  • Manel Esteller mail,

    mffraga@cnio.es (MFF); mesteller@cnio.es (ME)

    Affiliations: Cancer Epigenetics Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain, Cancer Epigenetics and Biology Program (PEBC), Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Barcelona, Spain

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  • Mario F. Fraga mail

    mffraga@cnio.es (MFF); mesteller@cnio.es (ME)

    Affiliations: Cancer Epigenetics Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain, Department of Immunology and Oncology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología/CSIC, Darwin 3, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain

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  • Published: September 29, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003294

About the Authors

Vincenzo Calvanese, Agustín F. Fernandez, Ester Lara, Sara Casado, Manel Esteller, Mario F. Fraga
Cancer Epigenetics Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain
Angelica Horrillo, Abdelkrim Hmadcha
Andalusian Center for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine (CABIMER), Seville, Spain
Beatriz Suarez-Álvarez, Carlos Lopez-Larrea, Bernat Soria
Unidad de Histocompatibilidad, HUCA, Oviedo, Spain
Agustín F. Fernandez, Manel Esteller
Cancer Epigenetics and Biology Program (PEBC), Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Barcelona, Spain
Pablo Menendez, Clara Bueno, Javier Garcia-Castro, Ruth Rubio
Andalusian Stem Cell Bank (BACM)/University of Granada, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Parque Tecnológico de la Salud, Granada, Spain
Pablo Lapunzina
S. de Genética Médica y Molecular, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid y CIBERER, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras, Madrid, Spain
Miguel Alaminos
Department of Histology, University of Granada, Granada, Spain
Lodovica Borghese, Stefanie Terstegge, Oliver Brüstle
Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology, LIFE & BRAIN Center, University of Bonn and Hertie Foundation, Bonn, Germany
Neil J. Harrison, Harry D. Moore, Peter W. Andrews
Centre for Stem Cell Biology and the Department of Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
Mario F. Fraga
Department of Immunology and Oncology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología/CSIC, Darwin 3, Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MFF. Performed the experiments: VC AH AH BS AFF EL SC CB RR LB ST NJH. Analyzed the data: VC AH AFF MA. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AH AH BS PM JGC PL LB NJH HM OB CLL PA BS. Wrote the paper: PA BS ME MFF.