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Research Article

Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence of Study Publication Bias and Outcome Reporting Bias

  • Kerry Dwan mail,

    kerry.dwan@liverpool.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Centre for Medical Statistics and Health Evaluation, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Douglas G. Altman,

    Affiliation: Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Juan A. Arnaiz,

    Affiliation: Clinical Pharmacology Unit, UASP Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain

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  • Jill Bloom,

    Affiliation: Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom

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  • An-Wen Chan,

    Affiliation: Randomized Controlled Trials Unit, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Ottawa, Canada

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  • Eugenia Cronin,

    Affiliation: Healthier Communities/Public Health, Greenwich Council, London, England

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  • Evelyne Decullier,

    Affiliation: Clinical Epidemiology Unit, DIM-Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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  • Philippa J. Easterbrook,

    Affiliation: Department of HIV/GUM, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Erik Von Elm,

    Affiliations: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, German Cochrane Centre, Department of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, University Medical Centre Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

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  • Carrol Gamble,

    Affiliation: Centre for Medical Statistics and Health Evaluation, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Davina Ghersi,

    Affiliation: NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, Camperdown, Australia

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  • John P. A. Ioannidis,

    Affiliations: Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece, Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies, Department of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • John Simes,

    Affiliation: National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Clinical Trials Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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  • Paula R. Williamson

    Affiliation: Centre for Medical Statistics and Health Evaluation, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Published: August 28, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003081

About the Authors

Kerry Dwan, Carrol Gamble, Paula R. Williamson
Centre for Medical Statistics and Health Evaluation, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
Douglas G. Altman
Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Juan A. Arnaiz
Clinical Pharmacology Unit, UASP Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain
Jill Bloom
Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom
An-Wen Chan
Randomized Controlled Trials Unit, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Ottawa, Canada
Eugenia Cronin
Healthier Communities/Public Health, Greenwich Council, London, England
Evelyne Decullier
Clinical Epidemiology Unit, DIM-Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France
Philippa J. Easterbrook
Department of HIV/GUM, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
Erik Von Elm
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
Erik Von Elm
German Cochrane Centre, Department of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, University Medical Centre Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
Davina Ghersi
NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, Camperdown, Australia
John P. A. Ioannidis
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece
John P. A. Ioannidis
Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies, Department of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
John Simes
National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Clinical Trials Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

Corresponding Author

Email: kerry.dwan@liverpool.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: KD DGA CG PW. Performed the experiments: KD. Analyzed the data: KD. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JAA JB AWC EC ED PE EvE CG DG JPAI JS PW. Wrote the paper: KD DGA. Performed the literature search and data extraction, contacted all authors of included studies and wrote the first draft: KD. Contributed to the development of the protocol: KD DGA CG PW. Provided comments on the manuscript: DGA ED EvE CG JPAI JS PW. Gave permission to include data from their study in the review, responded to queries and provided extra information when needed and available: JAA JB AWC EC ED PE EvE DG JPAI.