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Research Article

Microbial Prevalence, Diversity and Abundance in Amniotic Fluid During Preterm Labor: A Molecular and Culture-Based Investigation

  • Daniel B. DiGiulio,

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States of America

    X
  • Roberto Romero,

    Affiliations: Perinatology Research Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, and Detroit, Michigan, United States of America, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States of America

    X
  • Harold P. Amogan,

    Affiliation: Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States of America

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  • Juan Pedro Kusanovic,

    Affiliations: Perinatology Research Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, and Detroit, Michigan, United States of America, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States of America

    X
  • Elisabeth M. Bik,

    Affiliations: Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States of America, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

    X
  • Francesca Gotsch,

    Affiliation: Perinatology Research Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, and Detroit, Michigan, United States of America

    X
  • Chong Jai Kim,

    Affiliations: Perinatology Research Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, and Detroit, Michigan, United States of America, Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States of America

    X
  • Offer Erez,

    Affiliations: Perinatology Research Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, and Detroit, Michigan, United States of America, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Sam Edwin,

    Affiliation: Perinatology Research Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, and Detroit, Michigan, United States of America

    X
  • David A. Relman mail

    relman@stanford.edu

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States of America, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

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  • Published: August 26, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003056

About the Authors

Daniel B. DiGiulio, David A. Relman
Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America
Daniel B. DiGiulio, Harold P. Amogan, Elisabeth M. Bik, David A. Relman
Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, United States of America
Roberto Romero, Juan Pedro Kusanovic, Francesca Gotsch, Chong Jai Kim, Offer Erez, Sam Edwin
Perinatology Research Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, and Detroit, Michigan, United States of America
Roberto Romero
Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States of America
Juan Pedro Kusanovic, Offer Erez
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States of America
Elisabeth M. Bik, David A. Relman
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
Chong Jai Kim
Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: relman@stanford.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: DBD RR EMB DAR. Performed the experiments: DBD HPA. Analyzed the data: DBD RR HPA JPK EMB FG CJK OE SE DAR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RR DAR. Wrote the paper: DBD RR JPK EMB FG OE SE DAR. Placental pathology diagnosis: CJK. Determination of IL-6 concentrations in amniotic fluid: SE. Collection of data (demographic and clinical): OE FG JPK RR.