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Research Article

Climate Warming, Marine Protected Areas and the Ocean-Scale Integrity of Coral Reef Ecosystems

  • Nicholas A. J. Graham mail,

    n.a.j.graham@ncl.ac.uk

    Affiliation: School of Marine Science & Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom

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  • Tim R. McClanahan,

    Affiliation: Wildlife Conservation Society, Marine Programs, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • M. Aaron MacNeil,

    Affiliations: School of Marine Science & Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom, National Research Council, NOAA Panama City Laboratory, Panama City Beach, Florida United States of America

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  • Shaun K. Wilson,

    Affiliations: School of Marine Science & Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom, ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia

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  • Nicholas V. C. Polunin,

    Affiliation: School of Marine Science & Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom

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  • Simon Jennings,

    Affiliations: Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft Laboratory, Lowestoft, United Kingdom, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom

    X
  • Pascale Chabanet,

    Affiliations: Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Nouméa, New Caledonia, Laboratoire d'Ecologie marine (ECOMAR), Université de La Réunion, Saint-Denis, La Réunion, France

    X
  • Susan Clark,

    Affiliation: Natural England, Bridgewater House, Whitworth Street, Manchester, United Kingdom

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  • Mark D. Spalding,

    Affiliation: The Nature Conservancy, Newmarket, United Kingdom

    X
  • Yves Letourneur,

    Affiliation: Université de la Méditerranée, Centre d'Océanologie de Marseille, UMR CNRS 6540 DIMAR, Campus de Luminy, Case 901, Marseille, France

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  • Lionel Bigot,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire d'Ecologie marine (ECOMAR), Université de La Réunion, Saint-Denis, La Réunion, France

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  • René Galzin,

    Affiliation: UMR 5244 CNRS-EPHE-UPVD, Ecosystèmes Coralliens, Université de Perpignan, Perpignan, France

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  • Marcus C. Öhman,

    Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Kajsa C. Garpe,

    Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Alasdair J. Edwards,

    Affiliation: School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom

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  • Charles R. C. Sheppard

    Affiliation: University of Warwick, Department of Biological Sciences, Coventry, United Kingdom

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  • Published: August 27, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003039

About the Authors

Nicholas A. J. Graham, M. Aaron MacNeil, Shaun K. Wilson, Nicholas V. C. Polunin
School of Marine Science & Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom
Tim R. McClanahan
Wildlife Conservation Society, Marine Programs, Bronx, New York, United States of America
M. Aaron MacNeil
National Research Council, NOAA Panama City Laboratory, Panama City Beach, Florida United States of America
Shaun K. Wilson
ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
Simon Jennings
Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft Laboratory, Lowestoft, United Kingdom
Simon Jennings
School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
Pascale Chabanet
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Nouméa, New Caledonia
Pascale Chabanet, Lionel Bigot
Laboratoire d'Ecologie marine (ECOMAR), Université de La Réunion, Saint-Denis, La Réunion, France
Susan Clark
Natural England, Bridgewater House, Whitworth Street, Manchester, United Kingdom
Mark D. Spalding
The Nature Conservancy, Newmarket, United Kingdom
Yves Letourneur
Université de la Méditerranée, Centre d'Océanologie de Marseille, UMR CNRS 6540 DIMAR, Campus de Luminy, Case 901, Marseille, France
René Galzin
UMR 5244 CNRS-EPHE-UPVD, Ecosystèmes Coralliens, Université de Perpignan, Perpignan, France
Marcus C. Öhman, Kajsa C. Garpe
Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Alasdair J. Edwards
School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom
Charles R. C. Sheppard
University of Warwick, Department of Biological Sciences, Coventry, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: n.a.j.graham@ncl.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: NAJG TM NP. Performed the experiments: NAJG TM SKW SJ PC SC MDS YL LB RG MCO KCG AJE CRCS. Analyzed the data: NAJG MAM. Wrote the paper: NAJG TM MAM SKW NP SJ PC SC MDS YL LB RG MCO KCG AJE CRCS.