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Research Article

Blood Parasites in Owls with Conservation Implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis)

  • Heather D. Ishak mail,

    heatherishak@gmail.com

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • John P. Dumbacher,

    Affiliations: Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Ornithology and Mammalogy, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Nancy L. Anderson,

    Affiliation: Lindsay Wildlife Museum, Walnut Creek, California, United States of America

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  • John J. Keane,

    Affiliation: Sierra Nevada Research Center, USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Davis, California, United States of America

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  • Gediminas Valkiūnas,

    Affiliation: Institute of Ecology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania

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  • Susan M. Haig,

    Affiliation: USGS Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America

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  • Lisa A. Tell,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

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  • Ravinder N. M. Sehgal

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Published: May 28, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002304

About the Authors

Heather D. Ishak, John P. Dumbacher, Ravinder N. M. Sehgal
Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, United States of America
John P. Dumbacher
Department of Ornithology and Mammalogy, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Nancy L. Anderson
Lindsay Wildlife Museum, Walnut Creek, California, United States of America
John J. Keane
Sierra Nevada Research Center, USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Davis, California, United States of America
Gediminas Valkiūnas
Institute of Ecology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania
Susan M. Haig
USGS Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America
Lisa A. Tell
Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: heatherishak@gmail.com

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: HI RS. Performed the experiments: HI. Analyzed the data: GV. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JD NA JK GV SH LT RS. Wrote the paper: HI. Other: Edited the paper: RS SH JK JD.