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Research Article

Molecular Mapping of Movement-Associated Areas in the Avian Brain: A Motor Theory for Vocal Learning Origin

  • Gesa Feenders,

    Affiliation: Volkswagen Nachwuchsgruppe Animal Navigation, Institut für Biologie und Umweltwissenschaften (IBU), University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany

    Current address: Institute of Neuroscience, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

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  • Miriam Liedvogel,

    Affiliation: Volkswagen Nachwuchsgruppe Animal Navigation, Institut für Biologie und Umweltwissenschaften (IBU), University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany

    Current address: Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Miriam Rivas,

    Affiliation: Duke University Medical Center, Department of Neurobiology, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Manuela Zapka,

    Affiliation: Volkswagen Nachwuchsgruppe Animal Navigation, Institut für Biologie und Umweltwissenschaften (IBU), University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany

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  • Haruhito Horita,

    Affiliation: Duke University Medical Center, Department of Neurobiology, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Erina Hara,

    Affiliation: Duke University Medical Center, Department of Neurobiology, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Kazuhiro Wada,

    Affiliation: Duke University Medical Center, Department of Neurobiology, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

    Current address: Division of Integrated Life Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan

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  • Henrik Mouritsen mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: henrik.mouritsen@uni-oldenburg.de (HM); jarvis@neuro.duke.edu (EJ)

    Affiliation: Volkswagen Nachwuchsgruppe Animal Navigation, Institut für Biologie und Umweltwissenschaften (IBU), University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany

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  • Erich D. Jarvis mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: henrik.mouritsen@uni-oldenburg.de (HM); jarvis@neuro.duke.edu (EJ)

    Affiliation: Duke University Medical Center, Department of Neurobiology, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Published: March 12, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001768

About the Authors

Gesa Feenders, Miriam Liedvogel, Manuela Zapka, Henrik Mouritsen
Volkswagen Nachwuchsgruppe Animal Navigation, Institut für Biologie und Umweltwissenschaften (IBU), University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany
Miriam Rivas, Haruhito Horita, Erina Hara, Kazuhiro Wada, Erich D. Jarvis
Duke University Medical Center, Department of Neurobiology, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: EJ HM GF. Performed the experiments: EJ HM ML GF MR MZ. Analyzed the data: EJ HM GF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: EJ. Wrote the paper: EJ HM GF. Other: Performed the deafening surgeries and some of the singing-driven gene expression experiments: HH. Supervised initial gene expression experiments: KW. Performed the hummingbird experiments: EH.