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Research Article

The Phylogeny of the Four Pan-American MtDNA Haplogroups: Implications for Evolutionary and Disease Studies

  • Alessandro Achilli,

    Affiliations: Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia, Università di Pavia, Pavia, Italy, Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare e Ambientale, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia, Italy

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  • Ugo A. Perego,

    Affiliations: Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia, Università di Pavia, Pavia, Italy, Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America

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  • Claudio M. Bravi,

    Affiliation: Laboratorio de Genética Molecular Poblacional, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Celular (IMBICE), La Plata, Argentina

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  • Michael D. Coble,

    Affiliation: Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Qing-Peng Kong,

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Evolution, and Molecular Biology of Domestic Animals, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China, Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resource, Yunnan University, Kunming, China

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  • Scott R. Woodward,

    Affiliation: Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America

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  • Antonio Salas,

    Affiliation: Unidade de Xenética, Instituto de Medicina Legal, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Grupo de Medicina Xenómica, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain

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  • Antonio Torroni mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: torroni@ipvgen.unipv.it

    Affiliation: Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia, Università di Pavia, Pavia, Italy

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  • Hans-Jürgen Bandelt

    Affiliation: Department of Mathematics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

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  • Published: March 12, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001764

About the Authors

Alessandro Achilli, Ugo A. Perego, Antonio Torroni
Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia, Università di Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Alessandro Achilli
Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare e Ambientale, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia, Italy
Ugo A. Perego, Scott R. Woodward
Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America
Claudio M. Bravi
Laboratorio de Genética Molecular Poblacional, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Celular (IMBICE), La Plata, Argentina
Michael D. Coble
Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America
Qing-Peng Kong
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Evolution, and Molecular Biology of Domestic Animals, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
Qing-Peng Kong
Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resource, Yunnan University, Kunming, China
Antonio Salas
Unidade de Xenética, Instituto de Medicina Legal, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Grupo de Medicina Xenómica, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain
Hans-Jürgen Bandelt
Department of Mathematics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

Corresponding Author

Email: torroni@ipvgen.unipv.it

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AS AT HB AA. Performed the experiments: AA UP. Analyzed the data: AS AT HB CB QK AA MC UP SW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AT. Wrote the paper: AS AT HB CB QK AA MC UP SW.