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Research Article

Baselines and Degradation of Coral Reefs in the Northern Line Islands

  • Stuart A. Sandin,

    Affiliation: Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, United States of America

    X
  • Jennifer E. Smith,

    Affiliation: National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America

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  • Edward E. DeMartini,

    Affiliation: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries Service, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America

    X
  • Elizabeth A. Dinsdale,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, United States of America

    X
  • Simon D. Donner,

    Affiliation: Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America

    X
  • Alan M. Friedlander,

    Affiliation: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science-Biogeography Team and The Oceanic Institute, Waimanalo, Hawaii, United States of America

    X
  • Talina Konotchick,

    Affiliation: Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Machel Malay,

    Affiliation: Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

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  • James E. Maragos,

    Affiliation: Pacific/Remote Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America

    X
  • David Obura,

    Affiliation: CORDIO East Africa, Mombasa, Kenya

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  • Olga Pantos,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, United States of America

    X
  • Gustav Paulay,

    Affiliation: Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

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  • Morgan Richie,

    Affiliation: Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Forest Rohwer,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, United States of America

    X
  • Robert E. Schroeder,

    Affiliation: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research and Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Coral Reef Ecosystem Division, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America

    X
  • Sheila Walsh,

    Affiliation: Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Jeremy B. C. Jackson,

    Affiliations: Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, United States of America, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Republic of Panama

    X
  • Nancy Knowlton,

    Affiliations: Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, United States of America, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Republic of Panama

    X
  • Enric Sala mail

    *E-mail: esala@ucsd.edu

    Affiliations: Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, United States of America, Centre d'Estudis Avançats de Blanes, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Blanes, Spain

    X
  • Published: February 27, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001548
  • Featured in PLOS Collections

About the Authors

Stuart A. Sandin, Talina Konotchick, Morgan Richie, Sheila Walsh, Jeremy B. C. Jackson, Nancy Knowlton, Enric Sala
Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, United States of America
Jennifer E. Smith
National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America
Edward E. DeMartini
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries Service, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America
Elizabeth A. Dinsdale, Olga Pantos, Forest Rohwer
Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, United States of America
Simon D. Donner
Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America
Alan M. Friedlander
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science-Biogeography Team and The Oceanic Institute, Waimanalo, Hawaii, United States of America
Machel Malay, Gustav Paulay
Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America
James E. Maragos
Pacific/Remote Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America
David Obura
CORDIO East Africa, Mombasa, Kenya
Robert E. Schroeder
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research and Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Coral Reef Ecosystem Division, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America
Jeremy B. C. Jackson, Nancy Knowlton
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Republic of Panama
Enric Sala
Centre d'Estudis Avançats de Blanes, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Blanes, Spain

Corresponding Author

Email: esala@ucsd.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JJ NK GP ES JS SS FR OP ED AF JM DO. Performed the experiments: GP ES JS SS FR ED OP ED AF MM JM DO. Analyzed the data: ES JS SS FR ED OP ED AF JM DO. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: FR SD TK MR SW RS. Wrote the paper: JJ NK ES JS SS.