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Research Article

Global Patterns in Seasonal Activity of Influenza A/H3N2, A/H1N1, and B from 1997 to 2005: Viral Coexistence and Latitudinal Gradients

  • Brian S. Finkelman mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: bsf143@psu.edu

    Affiliation: Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, Eberly College of Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Cécile Viboud,

    Affiliation: Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Katia Koelle,

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Matthew J. Ferrari,

    Affiliation: Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, Eberly College of Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Nita Bharti,

    Affiliation: Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, Eberly College of Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Bryan T. Grenfell

    Affiliations: Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, Eberly College of Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Published: December 12, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001296

About the Authors

Brian S. Finkelman, Matthew J. Ferrari, Nita Bharti, Bryan T. Grenfell
Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, Eberly College of Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Cécile Viboud, Bryan T. Grenfell
Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Katia Koelle
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: bsf143@psu.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: BG KK CV BF. Analyzed the data: BG KK CV MF BF NB. Wrote the paper: BG CV BF. Other: Provided assistance in statistical analysis: MF. Provided assistance in selection of data sets used: NB. Provided assistance in data analysis: NB. Provided assistance in editorial feedback: NB MF. Suggested and provided feedback on subtype synchrony and periodicity analyses: KK.