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Research Article

Sexual Risk Factors for HIV Infection in Early and Advanced HIV Epidemics in Sub-Saharan Africa: Systematic Overview of 68 Epidemiological Studies

  • Li Chen,

    Affiliation: Centre for Global Health Research, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Prabhat Jha mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: prabhat.jha@utoronto.ca

    Affiliation: Centre for Global Health Research, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Bridget Stirling,

    Affiliations: Centre for Global Health Research, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Division of Medical Sciences, Island Medical Program, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

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  • Sema K. Sgaier,

    Affiliation: Centre for Global Health Research, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Tina Daid,

    Affiliation: Centre for Global Health Research, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Rupert Kaul,

    Affiliations: Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya, Department of Medicine, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Nico Nagelkerke,

    Affiliation: Department of Community Medicine, Al Ain University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

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  • for the International Studies of HIV/AIDS (ISHA) Investigators
  • Published: October 03, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001001

About the Authors

Li Chen, Prabhat Jha, Bridget Stirling, Sema K. Sgaier, Tina Daid
Centre for Global Health Research, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Bridget Stirling
Division of Medical Sciences, Island Medical Program, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
Rupert Kaul
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
Rupert Kaul
Department of Medicine, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Nico Nagelkerke
Department of Community Medicine, Al Ain University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

Corresponding Author

Email: prabhat.jha@utoronto.ca

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: PJ LC BS TD. Analyzed the data: NN LC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SS TD. Wrote the paper: PJ RK NN LC BS SS TD.