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Research Article

Antiviral Oseltamivir Is not Removed or Degraded in Normal Sewage Water Treatment: Implications for Development of Resistance by Influenza A Virus

  • Jerker Fick mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jerker.fick@chem.umu.se

    Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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  • Richard H. Lindberg,

    Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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  • Mats Tysklind,

    Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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  • Paul D. Haemig,

    Affiliation: Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, Kalmar University, Kalmar, Sweden

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  • Jonas Waldenström,

    Affiliations: Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, Kalmar University, Kalmar, Sweden, Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden

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  • Anders Wallensten,

    Affiliations: Smedby Health Center, Kalmar County Council, Kalmar, Sweden, Division of Virology, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine (IMK) Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

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  • Björn Olsen

    Affiliations: Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, Kalmar University, Kalmar, Sweden, Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden

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  • Published: October 03, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000986

About the Authors

Jerker Fick, Richard H. Lindberg, Mats Tysklind
Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Paul D. Haemig, Jonas Waldenström, Björn Olsen
Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, Kalmar University, Kalmar, Sweden
Jonas Waldenström
Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
Anders Wallensten
Smedby Health Center, Kalmar County Council, Kalmar, Sweden
Anders Wallensten
Division of Virology, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine (IMK) Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden
Björn Olsen
Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden

Corresponding Author

Email: jerker.fick@chem.umu.se

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: BO RL MT. Performed the experiments: JF RL. Analyzed the data: JF RL. Wrote the paper: BO AW JW JF RL MT PH.