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Research Article

Beringian Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders

  • Erika Tamm,

    Affiliation: Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia

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  • Toomas Kivisild,

    Affiliations: Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia, Leverhulme Centre for Human Evolutionary Studies, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Maere Reidla,

    Affiliation: Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia

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  • Mait Metspalu,

    Affiliation: Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia

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  • David Glenn Smith,

    Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, University of California at Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

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  • Connie J. Mulligan,

    Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

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  • Claudio M. Bravi,

    Affiliation: Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Celular, La Plata, Argentina

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  • Olga Rickards,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

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  • Cristina Martinez-Labarga,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

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  • Elsa K. Khusnutdinova,

    Affiliation: Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia

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  • Sardana A. Fedorova,

    Affiliations: Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia, Department of Molecular Genetics, Yakut Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Yakutia, Russia

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  • Maria V. Golubenko,

    Affiliations: Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia, Institute of Medical Genetics, Tomsk Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Tomsk, Russia

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  • Vadim A. Stepanov,

    Affiliation: Institute of Medical Genetics, Tomsk Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Tomsk, Russia

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  • Marina A. Gubina,

    Affiliations: Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia, Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia

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  • Sergey I. Zhadanov,

    Affiliations: Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia, Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia, Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Ludmila P. Ossipova,

    Affiliation: Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia

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  • Larisa Damba,

    Affiliations: Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia, Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia

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  • Mikhail I. Voevoda,

    Affiliation: Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia

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  • Jose E. Dipierri,

    Affiliation: Instituto de Biologia de la Altura–Universidad Nacional de Jujuy, Jujuy, Argentina

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  • Richard Villems,

    Affiliation: Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia

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  • Ripan S. Malhi mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: malhi@uiuc.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Published: September 05, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000829

About the Authors

Erika Tamm, Toomas Kivisild, Maere Reidla, Mait Metspalu, Sardana A. Fedorova, Maria V. Golubenko, Marina A. Gubina, Sergey I. Zhadanov, Larisa Damba, Richard Villems
Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia
Toomas Kivisild
Leverhulme Centre for Human Evolutionary Studies, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
David Glenn Smith
Department of Anthropology, University of California at Davis, Davis, California, United States of America
Connie J. Mulligan
Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America
Claudio M. Bravi
Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Celular, La Plata, Argentina
Olga Rickards, Cristina Martinez-Labarga
Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
Elsa K. Khusnutdinova
Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia
Sardana A. Fedorova
Department of Molecular Genetics, Yakut Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Yakutia, Russia
Maria V. Golubenko, Vadim A. Stepanov
Institute of Medical Genetics, Tomsk Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
Marina A. Gubina, Sergey I. Zhadanov, Ludmila P. Ossipova, Larisa Damba, Mikhail I. Voevoda
Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Sergey I. Zhadanov
Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Jose E. Dipierri
Instituto de Biologia de la Altura–Universidad Nacional de Jujuy, Jujuy, Argentina
Ripan S. Malhi
Department of Anthropology, Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: malhi@uiuc.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: TK RM. Performed the experiments: ET MR. Analyzed the data: CB MM TK RM ET MR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: CB CM RV TK RM DS OR CM EK SF MG VS MG SZ LO LD MV JD. Wrote the paper: CM RV MM TK RM ET DS.