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Research Article

Leveraging Hierarchical Population Structure in Discrete Association Studies

  • Jonathan Carlson,

    Affiliations: Machine Learning and Applied Statistics Group, Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington, United States of America, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Carl Kadie,

    Affiliation: Machine Learning and Applied Statistics Group, Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington, United States of America

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  • Simon Mallal,

    Affiliation: Center for Clinical Immunology and Biomedical Statistics, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Australia

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  • David Heckerman mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: heckerma@microsoft.com

    Affiliation: Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Published: July 04, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000591

About the Authors

Jonathan Carlson, Carl Kadie
Machine Learning and Applied Statistics Group, Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington, United States of America
Jonathan Carlson, David Heckerman
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Simon Mallal
Center for Clinical Immunology and Biomedical Statistics, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Australia

Corresponding Author

Email: heckerma@microsoft.com

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JC DH. Performed the experiments: JC. Analyzed the data: JC DH. Wrote the paper: JC DH. Other: Provided HLA and HIV data: SM. Implemented the conditional model: CK.