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Research Article

Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance in Plague: An Emerging Public Health Risk

  • Timothy J. Welch,

    Affiliation: National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Kearneysville, West Virginia, United States of America

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  • W. Florian Fricke,

    Affiliation: The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Patrick F. McDermott,

    Affiliation: Office of Research, Center for Veterinary Medicine-Food and Drug Administration (CVM-FDA), Laurel, Maryland, United States of America

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  • David G. White,

    Affiliation: Office of Research, Center for Veterinary Medicine-Food and Drug Administration (CVM-FDA), Laurel, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Marie-Laure Rosso,

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Yersinia Research Unit, Paris, France

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  • David A. Rasko,

    Affiliations: The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas, United States of America

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  • Mark K. Mammel,

    Affiliation: Office of Applied Research and Safety Assessment, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition-Food and Drug Administration (CFSAN-FDA), Laurel, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Mark Eppinger,

    Affiliation: The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • M.J. Rosovitz,

    Affiliation: The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • David Wagner,

    Affiliation: Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Lila Rahalison,

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Antananarivo, Madagascar

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  • J. Eugene LeClerc,

    Affiliation: Office of Applied Research and Safety Assessment, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition-Food and Drug Administration (CFSAN-FDA), Laurel, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Jeffrey M. Hinshaw,

    Affiliation: Department of Zoology, North Carolina State University, Fletcher, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Luther E. Lindler,

    Affiliation: Public Health Laboratory Services, DoD-GEIS, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Thomas A. Cebula,

    Affiliation: Office of Applied Research and Safety Assessment, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition-Food and Drug Administration (CFSAN-FDA), Laurel, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Elisabeth Carniel,

    Affiliation: Institut Pasteur, Yersinia Research Unit, Paris, France

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  • Jacques Ravel mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jravel@tigr.org

    Affiliation: The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Published: March 21, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000309

About the Authors

Timothy J. Welch
National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Kearneysville, West Virginia, United States of America
W. Florian Fricke, David A. Rasko, Mark Eppinger, M.J. Rosovitz, Jacques Ravel
The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America
Patrick F. McDermott, David G. White
Office of Research, Center for Veterinary Medicine-Food and Drug Administration (CVM-FDA), Laurel, Maryland, United States of America
Marie-Laure Rosso, Elisabeth Carniel
Institut Pasteur, Yersinia Research Unit, Paris, France
David A. Rasko
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas, United States of America
Mark K. Mammel, J. Eugene LeClerc, Thomas A. Cebula
Office of Applied Research and Safety Assessment, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition-Food and Drug Administration (CFSAN-FDA), Laurel, Maryland, United States of America
David Wagner
Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States of America
Lila Rahalison
Institut Pasteur, Antananarivo, Madagascar
Jeffrey M. Hinshaw
Department of Zoology, North Carolina State University, Fletcher, North Carolina, United States of America
Luther E. Lindler
Public Health Laboratory Services, DoD-GEIS, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: jravel@tigr.org

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JR TW. Performed the experiments: JR EC TW WF PM DW MR. Analyzed the data: JR MR DR TW WF ME PM DW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JR EC LR DW TW PM DW MM JL TC MR LL JH. Wrote the paper: JR TW WF. Other: Edited Manuscript: EC TC DW PM.