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Research Article

Experimental Rugged Fitness Landscape in Protein Sequence Space

  • Yuuki Hayashi,

    Affiliation: Department of Bioinformatic Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan

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  • Takuyo Aita,

    Affiliations: Rational Evolutionary Design of Advanced Biomolecules (REDS) Group/JST, Saitama Small Enterprise Promotion Corporation SKIP City, Kawaguchi, Saitama, Japan, Department of Functional Materials Science, Saitama University, Saitama, Japan

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  • Hitoshi Toyota,

    Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan

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  • Yuzuru Husimi,

    Affiliation: Department of Functional Materials Science, Saitama University, Saitama, Japan

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  • Itaru Urabe,

    Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan

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  • Tetsuya Yomo mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: yomo@ist.osaka-u.ac.jp

    Affiliations: Department of Bioinformatic Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan, Expoloratory Research for Advanced Technology (ERATO), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Suita, Osaka, Japan

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  • Published: December 20, 2006
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000096

About the Authors

Yuuki Hayashi, Tetsuya Yomo
Department of Bioinformatic Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan
Takuyo Aita
Rational Evolutionary Design of Advanced Biomolecules (REDS) Group/JST, Saitama Small Enterprise Promotion Corporation SKIP City, Kawaguchi, Saitama, Japan
Takuyo Aita, Yuzuru Husimi
Department of Functional Materials Science, Saitama University, Saitama, Japan
Hitoshi Toyota, Itaru Urabe
Department of Biotechnology, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan
Tetsuya Yomo
Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan
Tetsuya Yomo
Expoloratory Research for Advanced Technology (ERATO), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Suita, Osaka, Japan

Corresponding Author

Email: yomo@ist.osaka-u.ac.jp

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: TY. Performed the experiments: YH. Analyzed the data: TA HT. Wrote the paper: TY TA. Other: Made discussions: IU YH.