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There are other problems too
Posted by Padre on 22 May 2013 at 16:44 GMT
I think the greatest is in the science of sodium(intake)
1. bigger and longer hunger stimulus - we overeat
2. we drink many sugary soft drinks - we get fat
3. we get tired soon, we move little
4. higher energy requirements (energy expenditure) for Na-K pump, and kidney
5. all the rest of our vital processes receive less energy. Because the metabolic rate - speed and capacity of enzyme reactions, oxygen supply, etc. - is limited, and excess sodium intake do not increase the oxidative glycolysis. But, a critical surplus switches the
anaerobic pathway on, in our every cells
6. all of our vital processes work worse (including our heart, brain, immune system, etc.)
7. we get sick often, and we will die soon
THE RATE OF ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS OF THE HEART IN RELATION TO THE LACTIC ACID CONCENTRATION, ATP CONTENT AND TEMPERATURE.
Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Kreislaufforschung 1964;30:211-5
http://europepmc.org/abst... (but no abstract..)
Saulo Klahr and Neal S. Bricker
Energetics of Anaerobic Sodium Transport by the Fresh Water Turtle Bladder
J Gen Physiol. 1965 March 1; 48(4): 571–580.
Full text: http://europepmc.org/arti...
From the abstract:
“The rate of anaerobic glycolysis, as determined by lactate formation, correlates well with the rate as determined by glycogen utilization. Using lactate formation as the index of anaerobic glycolysis, a linear relationship was observed between glycolysis and net anaerobic sodium transport.”
Oopps - Anaerobic glycolysis, lactic acid and sodium transport in 1965
The sodium pump and energy regulation: some new aspects for essential hypertension, diabetes II and severe overweight.
Klinische Wochenschrift 63 Suppl 3:4-8. 1985.
“There is a growing evidence for that in modern societies the function of the cellular sodium-potassium pump (membrane-bound Na+ K+ ATPase) in several tissues in man cannot respond adequately to demands. This is not seen in any other free-living vertebrates on this earth. The clearly unphysiological very high intake of sodium-chloride (salt) and also alcohol is definitely playing an important role in the development of the common degenerating metabolic aberrations, e.g. essential hypertension, diabetes II and severe overweight, in man. The special and overall important role of the sodium-potassium pump for optimal cellular function and regeneration with special reference to the vascular tissues is presented and discussed.”
The floor gas sodium-potassium pump (anaerobic turbo pump) is not enough, our cells are dying.
The high sodium intake = we deliver weapons and ammunition for our fiercest enemy in our own body. Who uses it without hesitation - against us. This fiercest enemy = The LAW of ENTROPY (the second law of thermodynamics).
Equivalency law in the metal requirement of the living organisms
Acta Alimentaria 27 (4): 389-395. 1998. http://padre.uw.hu/ekvis/...
This equivalency law is a simple chemical rule: The alkaline metal requirement (potassium + sodium) is chemically equivalent with that of polyvalent metals (calcium + magnesium + zinc + iron etc.). Because, is a strict chemical stoichiometrical rule of the cation exchange processes is that they proceed with the exchange of an equivalent amount of positively charged counter-ions. The counter-ions in our body = sodium + potassium.
Less counter-ion = trouble, much counter-ion = trouble, very much counter-ion = catastrophe.
Toshimasa Osaka, Akiko Kobayashi, and Shuji Inoue
Thermogenesis induced by osmotic stimulation of the intestines in the rat
J Physiol. 2001 April 1; 532(Pt 1): 261–269.
From the article:
“Intestinal infusion of hypertonic NaCl solutions also increased the metabolic rate dose dependently (Fig. 2A). The metabolic rate rose during the 10 min infusion period of 3.6 % NaCl, stayed at a plateau level of ~ 205 J kg-0.75 min−1 between 35 and 120 min and then slowly declined but was still significantly higher than the baseline level at 3 h. The energy expenditure induced by 3.6 % NaCl was 3.49 +/- 0.33 kJ kg-0.75 … The RER (respiratory exchange ratio) did not change after infusion of any of the NaCl solutions…”
This is Sodium Induced Cellular Anaerobic Thermogenesis / Glycolysis (SICAT / SCAG)
And in the article nothing about (floor gas) sodium-potassium pump, anaerobic glycolysis and lactic acid.
The salt = we burn the candle on both of his ends.
Ram K. Mathur
Role of diabetes, hypertension, and cigarette smoking on atherosclerosis
J Cardiovasc Dis Res. 2010 Apr-Jun; 1(2): 64–68.
From the article:
“To determine the mechanism of thermogenesis, Osaka et al.[7-9] infused hypertonic solution of glucose, NaCl, fructose, and amino acids in the intestine of urethane-anesthetized rats. … The mechanism of thermogenesis is not clear.”
From the end of the article:
“Finally, this field requires some broad theories and hypotheses explaining the involvement of foods, diabetes, hypertension, cigarette smoking, and others in the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. We have a mission but are lacking the vision. That is why we have not made any progress even though we have worked on it for more than 50 years.”
9 years and 5 x 9 years, and not clear? Floor gas Na-K pump and kidney use more energy (ATP) caused by NaCl. Must “burn” ANAEROBIC from the glycogen reserve for the excess ADP —> ATP reactions. Was the mechanism not clear really?
Or the scientific elite did not allow it to enlighten, or…?
Meneton P, Jeunemaitre X, de Wardener HE, MacGregor GA.
Links between dietary salt intake, renal salt handling, blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases.
Physiol Rev. 2005 Apr; 85(2):679-715. http://physrev.physiology...
From the abstract:
“From an evolutionary viewpoint, the human species is adapted to ingest and excrete less than 1 g of salt per day,..”
Christopher B Scott
Review Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis
Nutrition & Metabolism 2005, 2:14 http://www.nutritionandme...
From the article:
“The second law describes how energy is transferred from one form to another. For example heat, as an expression of energy, always flows in one direction – from hot to cold. Other ways of stating this are that energy flows “downhill” or, from a state of lower entropy to one of higher entropy. Entropy represents energy that is not available to perform work so that simply put, energy transfer is inefficient. Inefficiency also appears in the form of heat production that is usually discarded into the environment. …
Brisk activity of the sodium pump necessitates a rapid rate of ATP re-synthesis. If this is true then it is important to recognize that in some cells lactate with presumed heat production is better correlated with sodium and potassium pumping than is oxygen uptake …
It seems logical to conclude that most mammalian energy expenditure does come from aerobic metabolism but the evolution of a metabolic acceleration with concomitant heat production comes from both anaerobic and aerobic pathways. The relative contributions of each pathway to whole-body thermogenesis are not known.”
This already something, but not too much. The WHO recommendation is 5 g/day of salt (less than 2000 mg sodium), why?
10th ed. of RDA (1989.) for adults: 500 mg/day sodium.
We produce lactic acid in every our cells, even in our brain. The scientific elite makes fool of the whole humanity.
Shaun F. Morrison, Kazuhiro Nakamura and Christopher J. Madden
Central control of thermogenesis in mammals
July 1, 2008 Experimental Physiology, 93, 773-797. http://ep.physoc.org/cont...
Nothing about (floor gas) sodium-potassium pump, anaerobic glycolysis and lactic acid!
How does the knowledge, which was found already once, disappear?
The optimal Na/K ratio and the ratio between sum of alkali metals and sum of polyvalent metals, and the ratio between alkali metals and energy content (etc.) is in the human milk. From every viewpoint, the human milk is an evolutionary perfect food - including minimal energy expenditure of the Na-K pump in babies. Copy/Paste and extrapolation for adults (and some modification for some elements).
All mmol sodium (23 mg) swallowed unnecessarily, uses it the energy of 2x1020 pieces of ATP molecules. Only if the sodium ions only one times, and only one cell of ours diffuses! But (I think) more thousand times, and from many thousand of our cells it is necessary to remove it, while finally flows out from us!
Searching in 12 book set of DRI (more than 5000 pages) no hits for entropy, and the sodium-potassium pump is only some empty phrases. http://www.nap.edu/catalo...
The science of salt is the number one perfect example onto the blunders and mistakes and irresponsibilities of the modern health sciences. Forgotten and/or ignored or not understood articles, works, facts, evidences and wrong education etc. The blind watchmaker learned well the physics first, then the chemistry. And dealt with biochemistry then only. But never forgot what he learned already once.
More details and problems and links to cited articles: http://padre.uw.hu/ekvis/...