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Research Article

Hailstones: A Window into the Microbial and Chemical Inventory of a Storm Cloud

  • Tina Šantl-Temkiv,

    Affiliations: Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark, Microbiology Section, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark, Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

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  • Kai Finster,

    Affiliations: Microbiology Section, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark, Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

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  • Thorsten Dittmar,

    Affiliation: Max Planck Research Group for Marine Geochemistry, Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany

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  • Bjarne Munk Hansen,

    Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark

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  • Runar Thyrhaug †,

    † Deceased.

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway

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  • Niels Woetmann Nielsen,

    Affiliation: Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark

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  • Ulrich Gosewinkel Karlson mail

    uka@dmu.dk

    Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark

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  • Published: January 23, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053550

Reader Comments (2)

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Early Research on Hailstones and Ice Nuclei

Posted by Schnell1 on 25 Jan 2013 at 16:56 GMT

Nice work!

It may be of interest to the authors and the PLOS readership that observations in the 1960's that biological materials were visibly being drawn into forming hailstorms led to the discovering of bacterial ice nuclei.

There are dozens of papers on the topic from that era, but they do not seem to be picked up by electronic searches. Searching for papers by Vali, Schnell, Maki or Fresh might lead to some of these early papers that came to the same conclusions but with much less supporting data as is now available with current lab techniques.

No competing interests declared.