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Research Article

The Bite of the Honeybee: 2-Heptanone Secreted from Honeybee Mandibles during a Bite Acts as a Local Anaesthetic in Insects and Mammals

  • Alexandros Papachristoforou mail,

    papachri@legs.cnrs-gif.fr

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Animal Physiology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, Laboratoire Evolution, Génomes, Spéciation, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay, France, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus

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  • Alexia Kagiava,

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Animal Physiology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics Neuroscience, Nicosia, Cyprus

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  • Chrisovalantis Papaefthimiou,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Animal Physiology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

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  • Aikaterini Termentzi,

    Affiliation: Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Products Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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  • Nikolas Fokialakis,

    Affiliation: Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Products Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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  • Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis,

    Affiliation: Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Products Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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  • Max Watkins,

    Affiliation: Vita (Europe) Limited, Basingstoke, Hampshire, United Kingdom

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  • Gérard Arnold,

    Affiliations: Laboratoire Evolution, Génomes, Spéciation, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay, France

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  • George Theophilidis

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Animal Physiology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

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  • Published: October 16, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047432

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