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Research Article

Extensive Geographic Mosaicism in Avian Influenza Viruses from Gulls in the Northern Hemisphere

  • Michelle Wille,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada

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  • Gregory J. Robertson,

    Affiliation: Wildlife Research Division, Environment Canada, Mount Pearl, Newfoundland, Canada

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  • Hugh Whitney,

    Affiliation: Animal Health Division, Department of Natural Resources, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada

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  • Mary Anne Bishop,

    Affiliation: Prince William Sound Science Centre, Cordova, Alaska, United States of America

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  • Jonathan A. Runstadler,

    Affiliation: Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States of America

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  • Andrew S. Lang mail

    aslang@mun.ca

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada

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  • Published: June 15, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020664

Reader Comments (1)

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mallards

Posted by gsgs on 07 Jul 2011 at 04:36 GMT

but gull-flu is usually distant from the bird-(mallard-)-amino-acid index in the inner segments
and won't go back to mallards to create new strains that survive for long. It drives away from that index and eventually dies, so I think gulls don't play a major role in longterm intercontinental flu-evolution, which is led by mallards.

No competing interests declared.