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Research Article

Altruism in Forest Chimpanzees: The Case of Adoption

  • Christophe Boesch mail,

    boesch@eva.mpg.de

    Affiliation: Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

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  • Camille Bolé,

    Affiliation: Centre Suisse de Recherche Scientifique, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

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  • Nadin Eckhardt,

    Affiliations: Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany, Centre Suisse de Recherche Scientifique, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

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  • Hedwige Boesch

    Affiliation: Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

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  • Published: January 27, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008901

Reader Comments (3)

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Altruistic adoption in chimpanzees?

Posted by nbaumard on 04 Feb 2010 at 23:28 GMT

I would like to suggest an alternative explanation based on the distinction between the proper domain and the actual domain of evolved cognitive abilities. Here, Boesch et al. assume that these adoptions are adaptive. But it could be the case that they are rather an accidental by-product of chimpanzee cognition. Indeed, chimpanzees are probably equipped with an evolved ‘parental instinct' or ‘care-giver module' that leads them to care about their children. This module has been designed by natural selection to detect the individual's offspring. However, this module maybe mistaken and can lead individuals to sometimes care about children who are not their offspring. Take another example. We have evolved a capacity to be aroused by persons from the other sex in order to reproduce ourselves. Although this module is adaptive, it sometimes misfires and is activated by many things that do not lead to reproduction. In other word, when we try to explain a behaviour from an evolutionary point of view, we should be careful not to mix the proper domain of a module - all the information that it is the module's biological function to process (for instance: the sexual trait of individuals) and the actual domain - everything that the mechanism actually does, which differs from but overlaps with what it was designed to do (Playboy's photos). Typically, cultural items tap onto the actual domain to get our attention and be reproduced (see the proper and the actual domain of the face recognition module in Sperber and Hirschfeld in The cognitive foundations of cultural stability and diversity).

DomainFace

Returning to the case of chimpanzee adoptions, it could be the case that chimpanzees are not really altruistic. They might have evolved a module to take care about everything that is "cute" and "in despair". This module sometimes lead them to adopt orphans not because doing so is adaptive but only because these orphans meet the input condition of their module (exactly like the playmate, albeit a photo, meets the input conditions of males' modules). Note that something similar may be happening among humans as well. When people adopt orphans from foreign countries, there is absolutely no evolutionary value in such an action. The explanation of their behaviour might rather be cognitive and only indirectly evolutionary. Evolution has selected a parental instinct that leads people to want to care for children who would have a unique need of them, which is first and foremost true of their own children, but also of abandoned or orphaned children in need.

This explanation fits with what we know about chimpanzees' lack of mutual help (by contrast, it is surprising that chimpanzees help orphans but let their conspecifics die when they are adults). It also fits with primates' drive for babies and children. Indeed, in primates' societies, individuals are always keen to handle babies and children (there is even a market for handling babies and the scarcer the babies, the longer individuals groom the mother to get the authorization to handle it - see also Sarah Hrdy's book Mothers and others reviewed here). Here again, it would be possible to draw an evolutionary theory (female use others' babies to train themselves, etc.) but it seems simpler to consider that this caring for young primate is not an adaptation, but the by-product of an evolved disposition to take care of one's offspring.

More here:

http://www.cognitionandcu...

No competing interests declared.